It can be stated that German and Ausüian researchers, scholars, artists and scientists contributed a great deal of help to establish and to develop westernized, modern higher institutions in Turkey. In other words, both Ottoman Empire and Turkish Republic recevied ample am ount of help from the scientists mentiöned above.

The chief contributions made to Turkish higher educational systems as follow:

a) The Reorganization of the instructional methods and curriculum; increasing the quality and quantity of text books; establishment and development of the institue and faculty libraries; publication of the scholarly journals; and testing and installing the results of clinical and educational research methods.

b) In addition, German and Austrian scientists had crucial importance in educating and mentoring young Turkish scientists; and facilitating instructional activisites in advanced level.

c) Finally, the depolopment in m odern sciences, arts, medicines and philosophies; establishing and nurturing a secular and modern economic system.