The Perception of Miraj in the Turkish Folk Muslim
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Bölümü, Muğla/ Türkiye
Keywords: Miraj, Folk Islam, Mevlâna, Satuk Buğra, Basmala Commentary, forties meeting
It is mentioned about the folk Islam, which consists of mixing the beliefs of the Islam with the beliefs of before Islam. The social history of popular Islam is similar in all nations. Miraj is considered as one of the holy nights of the Islamic world. Ascension is given in the main lines in Qur’an. In addition to commentary, hadiths and prophetic biography, there is a rich collection of reflected in literature and art. Just as there are theologians who have linked the miraj to just one dream, there are scientists with different acknowledgments that the prophet performed an extraordinary miracle physically and in a short time. We will leave these different opinions aside. In this article, the extraordinary things that the Turks included in the miraj were discussed.
A magnificent event such as miraç deeply affected Turkish Islam. Ancient beliefs are placed within the ascension stages. Clergymen like Mevlâna, Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli ve Hz. Ali and satatesmen like Satuk Buğra Han become intermediary persons. The respected places of these names in the history of culture are also carried to the ascetic narratives. What is told about these intermediaries is often not questioned. It is considered to be within the belief of Islam.
Hz. Muhammad sees heaven and hell on the path of miraj, emerges seven skies, and talks to a prophet on each celestial floor. Finally, their meeting with God is told. It is witnessed that interviews, which are not included in any religious sources, are held within these exit stages. Among them are Mevlâna, Satuk Buğra Han, Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli’s work titled “The Basmala Commentary,” and the sacred story of the forties meeting in Alevi culture. One is sufis, one is ruler, one is Hz. Ali, including Ali, are the figures that the Prophet saw. In “Basmala Commentary”, Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli details the meetings and talks between the prophet and the creator. These interviews are intertwined with mythological origins in addition to being religious.
Before the soul descent to the world Prophet sees Rumi who the future descendant of Abu Bakr in the ascension. His appearance is explained in detail. The ninth sky floor overlaps with pre-Islamic beliefs. Satuk Buğra Han appears in the ascension with his horseman and warrior appearance. The spirit, who will be born 330 years later, will spread Islam to the land of Turkestan. The legendary history has an important place in the orientation and transition of the Turk to Islam.
It is mentioaned about three birds that came out of the prophet’s mouth with differrent colors in the work that Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli narrates with a pedagogical manner. Birds take turns out of the Prophet’s mouth, grow, dive into the sea, splash water; Angels are created from the light in their drops. While explaining the importance of the Basmalah, the sample universe that the public can understand is used. Kırklar Cemi is the most important ritual story of Alevi culture. The Prophet sees a lion in Miraç. As in Sunni culture, the legendary history of Alevi culture is embellished with mythical elements.