The Key Factor in the Transformation of Instrumental Works to Staff Notation in Kitabu İlmi’l-Musiki and Kevserî Mecmuası: Meter
Harran Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Güzel Sanatlar Eğitimi Bölümü Müzik Eğitimi Anabilim Dalı, Şanlıurfa/TÜRKİYE
Keywords: Metre, usûl, Kitabu İlmi’l-Musiki, Kevserî Mecmuası, Turkish music.
Metre in music; the measure in which a musical work is measured is defined as usûl (rhythm). In the books entitled Kitabu İlmi’l-Musiki alâ vechi’l-Hurûfât and Kevserî Mecmuası are one of the written sources of the eighteenth century Ottoman / Turkish Music, it is seen that the subject of metre is comprehensively discussed, and it even plays an important role in the notation of instrumental works recorded in letter music notation. Metre according to the numbers used in the aforementioned works; there are three types: big metre (vezni kebir), small metre (vezni sagir) and smallest metre (vezni asgarü›s-sagir). It is understood that the instrumental works were recorded according to these metre types with letter music notation. In the facsimile, translation and simplified text works of Kitabu İlmi’l-Musiki alâ vechi’l-Hurûfât and Kevserî Mecmuası, the subject of metre has been discussed. In addition, it is noteworthy that the instrumental works in the musical notation parts of the written sources are transformed to European-based staff notation and there are differences in these transformations due to the different interpretation of the subject of metre. In the study, firstly the subject of metre was handled and definitions and explanations given in manuscripts were examined. Secondly, it has been tried to reveal how the subject of metre is understood, interpreted and evaluated by considering the findings of the researchers who have worked on the subject. Finally, based on all the studies carried out, it is explained with examples how to transformed the instrumental works to staff notation included in Kitabu İlmi’l-Musiki and Kevserî Mecmuası, taking into account the metre. As a result of the study, it was seen that the first issue that attracted attention was usûl. In the transformations of the aforementioned works to staff notation by the researchers, it was observed that there was a difference in the usûl durations from work to work, which contradicts with the information given in the usûl circles of the works. It is understood that the reason for the emergence of the differences is the different interpretation of the table titled “Mikdar-ı Rukum-ı Vezn-i Usulat-ı Musiki alâ Vech-i Tecdid” given in Kitabu İlmi’l-Musiki. However, the numerical values given for three metres in the table do not show the usûl durations, but the total pitch values according to the usûl durations. The second issue that draws attention at the end of the study is the note equivalences of the pitches. It has been observed that some researchers used different pitches in the transformation of their instrumental works to staff notation. The third issue is that in the transformations of the instrumental works recorded in nineteen different usûl in Kitabu İlmi’l-Musiki and Kevserî Mecmuası, usûl are especially related to tempo. If the work was written in big metre, it was determined that the staff notation should be divided into measures according to the duration value of the usûl, without changing the numerical values. If the work is written in small metre, half of the numerical values, if the work is written in smallest metre, half of the number values should be reduced to half (one-fourth) when transformed to staff notation. In other words, in the performing of a work according to the metre; it should be performed fast in big metre, medium tempo in small metre and at a slow tempo in smallest metre. Briefly, it has been understood that the key factor in written sources is the metre, especially related to the tempo of the work.