Keywords: Amīr Mo‘ezzī,Ode,Persian Poetry,Classical Poetry,Great Seljuk Empire,Seljuks



Mo'ezzī: Pioneer of Persian Ode in the 11th Century

Amīr Mo'ezzī (518-521/1124-1127), who was on duty with the title as maliku's-shu'arā in the Great Seljuk Palace for more than half a century is a poet of the Great Seljuk Empire creating his essential identity with his features of writing praise. His success in poetry, as a poet of the poems for sultans, commanders, viziers and important historical people in the Great Seljuk Empire, was acknowledged by ancient and modern important people. The fact that both predecessor men of letters and descendent ones included Mo'ezzī in their works shows the specialty of his poetry. Moreover, he was considered as one of the poets establishing basis for the ode in Persian Literature. He was mentioned as one of the pioneers of the ode in Persian by many historians of literature. It can be stated that he was one of the first poets producing and improving new metaphorical statements compared to previous poets considering his some odes. The reason is that his novelty and understanding brought to ode are different than them of other poets. Hāfez, one of the pioneer poets of ode, analyzed many of his odes and utilized from them. In addition, it is known that Sanā'ī-i Gaznavī followed Mo'ezzī for ode and the famous ode poets such as Anvarī, Zahīraddīn-i Fāryābī and Attār-i Nīsābūrī modelled his odes. However, in the period of Mo'ezzī, the ode separated its connection from the eulogy with the tegazzul, and proceeded to become an independent form of verse. The period Mo'ezzī was considered as a period in which ode patterns began to emerge and transferred into the early stages of maturity. As the ode is to praise the beloved and Mo'ezzī has included historical and narrative subjects in his odes, these show that Mo'ezzī's style of ode is integrated with his eulogist aspect and style as well as using it in accordance with the rules of classical odes. Mo'ezzī gained his fame with his being eulogist. The fact that the greatest poets such as Hāfez and many of his contemporary poets used the comparison and depictions of Mo'ezzī in their odes makes it clear that he played an important role as a poet of the period with his poetry as a poet. When his poems are analyzed, it is an undeniable fact that Mo'ezzī's mastery in his odes results from the success of Mo'ezzī in praise. In addition, it is also possible to say that Mo'ezzī was a poet who combined eulogy and ode in classical poetry. At that time, odes were considered as a praise which was written in the form of ode by the effect of the search for innovation, and which resembles eulogy because of its meaning. As a result, Mo'ezzī often imposed the function and characteristics of the ode but, when doing it, he did not make compromise his poetry and poets. Persian men of letters and literary historians have also argued that Mo'ezzī was one of the poets who contributed to the form of Persian poetry and made the greatest contribution to its development. In accordance with this statements, it is understood that Mo'ezzī was considered as famous ode poets in Persian Literature and in the first period of his age.