Keywords: Westernization,modernization,Ottoman intellectuals,Westernizing intellectuals,Turkish intellectuals


The Ottoman westernization is a modernization process spreading from above to the people. With the westernization considered as the solution for salvation by the Ottoman bureaucrats and intellectuals, the Ottoman state and public structure were reshaped according to the political and social developments. This study deals with the nature of modernization from the perspective of the intelligentsia's ideals.