Representatıon of Worker on The Monument Sculptures in Zonguldak and Karabük Cities
Keywords: Monument Sculpture, Worker, Miner, Zonguldak, Karabuk, Modernism, Classicism.
Sculpt is defined as transforming the artist’s materials into three dimensional expressions that have certain weight and scope. If the sculpt is dedicated to a certain case or to a person/people who involved in that case, it is called as monument sculpture. Some of these monuments can manage to remain in accordance with the society’s level of culture/art or sometimes, they vanish due to various reasons. Altough these structures have strong meanings in their representation of things, one of the important reasons of their disappearence is because the society could not understand their meanings thus, these meanings got weaker through time and they diminished. Throughout history civilizations have built monument sculptures for purpose. Turkish sculpture has also seen sculptures in the form of monuments in accordance with the spirit of the time. These include monument sculptors on the Ataturk and Independence War, sculptures of personalities as Architect Sinan and Nasrettin Hoca. West Black Sea Region cities Zonguldak and Karabük are the cities occured after industrial revolution. Zonguldak is known as coal miner’s city whilst Karabük is known as industrial worker’s. In this article, the worker’s monument, miner’s monument, mine martyr’s monument, Uzun Mehmet monument, Kozlu miner monument are analized along with the worker monument sculpture and Atatürk monument in Karabük. By doing so, it is aimed to understand and study representations of workers who are the core factors of these cities’ population and growth and their reaction on art, artist, ruling class and their relations between society. These evaluations are studied with artistic style and comments. The ruling artistic understanding of these worker represented monuments is classicism. The classical understanding has ideological approaches in realistic expressions. Also, it is possible to see examples of cubic and intengible expressions in monuments in late impressionist effect.