Starting Excessive Militarism in The Turkish Educational System (1926-1947)
Keywords: Education, Militarism, Paramilitarizm, Physical Education, Turkish Educational System
With the invention of modern countries, a mandatory relationship and interaction has emerged between compulsory education, compulsory military service and the practices of citizenship. Being a loyal citizen to the country required a disciplined, central and compulsory education. In the 19th century when greatness was linked with armament, education was the most useful tool to increase the number of soldiers and social mobilization. For this reason, rituals and practices in favor of military service were included in education programs. It was sometimes seen in programs alone while sometimes integrated into courses such as Physical Education, Gymnastics, History, and Geography. Ottoman Empire after the second half of the 19th century was not out of these developments. Military education and paramilitary organizations which became popular during the First World War gained another dimension in the Republic Period. Military service became a compulsory course after 1926 and turned into a practice including 20 day camp on every educational level. Military Service Course which has a large part in shaping the social and mental world of today is a non-investigated topic in Turkish educational history. In this article, Preparatory for Military Service course between the years 1926 and 1947 have been analyzed by using archival documents.